Variant CJD is the human counterpart of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or mad cow disease, which spread through British cattle herds in the 1980s and 1990s. Most vCJD patients are believed to have acquired the fatal brain disease by eating beef from diseased cattle. See also: The United Kingdom uses a number of precautions to protect the blood supply from vCJD infectivity, the HPA noted. Since 1997, new cases of vCJD have triggered a search for and destruction of any blood donated by the case-patient. Since 1998 the United Kingdom has used blood plasma from the United States to produce all plasma derivatives. And since October 1999, white blood cells, which may pose the greatest risk of transmitting vCJD, have been removed from blood used for transfusions. Jan 18 UK HPA news releasehttp://www.hpa.org.uk/hpa/news/articles/press_releases/2007/070118_vCJD.htm Jan 22, 2007 (CIDRAP News) Health officials in the United Kingdom have found a probable fourth case of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) associated with a blood transfusion from someone who unknowingly had the disease. Authorities have classified the new case as probable, since vCJD cannot be definitively diagnosed until after death. Postmortem studies have been done on 112 of the 158 vCJD case-patients who have died, and have confirmed the disease in all cases, the HPA said. The case was diagnosed in a patient who received blood 9 years ago from a person who later was found to have vCJD, the UK Health Protection Agency (HPA) said in a Jan 18 statement. All 23 people have previously been informed of their potential exposure to the disease and advised to take precautions to reduce the risk of passing it to others via healthcare procedures, such as surgery, the statement said. “A transfusion from the same blood donor was also associated with one of the previously identified cases,” the HPA said. “The patient is still alive and is under specialist care.” “This new case of vCJD infection increases our concern about the risk to the small group of people who had blood transfusions from donors who unknowingly at the time of donation must have had vCJD infection,” Peter Borrielo, director of the HPA Centre for Infections, said in the news release. “However, this new case does not change our understanding of the risk for other people in any specific way.” The first case of vCJD associated with a blood transfusion was found in December 2003. So far, authorities have identified 66 people in the United Kingdom who have received “vCJD-implicated” transfusions, of whom 40 have died of causes other than vCJD, the HPA said. Twenty-three people are alive and have not been diagnosed with vCJD. Jul 22, 2004, CIDRAP News story “Another UK patient may have caught vCJD from blood” Sep 24, 2004, CIDRAP News story “UK tells blood-product recipients about possible vCJD risk”
See also: “We are well aware and are not hiding the fact that manufacturers have agreements with a number of governments to provide access to a vaccine,” she said. “We are discussing with the manufacturers where they are in terms of filling up their books . . . and what may still be available. Some vaccine may still be available in the early weeks or months of production.” The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other WHO collaborating centers are developing seed strains of virus for use in H1N1 vaccines. “We expect these will be available to manufacturers most likely in the second half of May,” Kieny said. The decision whether to recommend production will depend on the accumulating epidemiologic evidence about the virus, including how much of the population is likely to get sick and how severe the illness is, she said. And if the recommendation is made, it will be up to the manufacturers to decide whether to go ahead. WHO press briefings on swine fluhttp://www.who.int/mediacentre/multimedia/swineflupressbriefings/en/index.html The officials will discuss the potential procurement by agencies such as the United Nations Children’s Fund and the Pan American Health Organization of vaccine for developing countries, she said. “The decision is not that of WHO; the decision will be the manufacturers’ to take,” she said. In other comments, Kieny reported that the WHO director-general and the secretary-general of the United Nations will meet with vaccine company executives on May 19 to discuss how to ensure “equitable access for all countries” to any H1N1 vaccine. Last week Kieny said some of the vaccine manufacturers had completed about 60% of their production of the seasonal flu vaccine and that WHO officials were talking with them about the best time to switch from making seasonal vaccine to a swine flu vaccine. Kieny was asked if any vaccine would be available for poor countries, given that a number of governments have contracts with manufacturers for large amounts of any pandemic vaccine produced. In addition, no one yet knows what size dose will be necessary, whether an adjuvant will be needed, and whether each person will need one dose or two, Kieny reported. “Being conservative, we think there’ll be at least between 1 and 2 billion doses,” she said. May 6, 2009 (CIDRAP News) The World Health Organization (WHO) will convene a group of experts May 14 to advise the agency on whether to pull the trigger on production of a vaccine for the novel H1N1 swine influenza virus, a WHO official announced today. Kieny also acknowledged that multiple unknowns will govern how many doses can be produced and how many will be needed. For one thing, most of the vaccine will have to be grown in eggscell-based flu vaccine production is not mature enough to make much of a contributionand no one knows how well the vaccine virus will grow in eggs, she said. May 1 CIDRAP News story “Path to swine flu vaccine has major hurdles” Kieny offered an estimate today of global capacity to make a vaccine for the novel virus: somewhere between 1 billion and 2 billion doses in a year, based on an estimated seasonal vaccine capacity of about 900 million doses. Current world population is more than 6 billion. “It’s not at all that we’re hiding anything,” she said. “The reason nobody is answering this is that we don’t know.” For some vaccine makers, that would mean curtailing production of the seasonal flu vaccine for the northern hemisphere, since not all manufacturers have finished production. A WHO recommendation to do that could come in a few weeks, Kieny said. Kieny said “the vast majority” of manufacturers would need 5 to 6 months (from the identification of the virus) to begin producing a vaccine in quantity, but a few manufacturers might be able to start providing vaccine in as little as 4 months. “It will be a high-level meeting appealing for corporate responsibility and equitable access,” she said. In response to further questions, Kieny said she didn’t know “with any kind of precision” what fraction of potential pandemic vaccine production is already reserved. The experts will be asked if there’s enough evidence to warrant a WHO recommendation for manufacturers to start large-scale manufacturing of a vaccine for the new virus, said Dr. Marie-Paule Kieny, director of the WHO’s Initiative for Vaccine Research, in a news teleconference in Geneva. She acknowledged that she previously mentioned an estimate of 700 million doses for seasonal vaccine production. She explained that the 900 million estimate is based on manufacturers’ figures and added that vaccine plants are under construction in several countries, increasing capacity month by month. It’s generally understood that with novel flu viruses, to which people have little or no immunity, two doses of vaccine may well be necessary. That’s true of H5N1 avian influenza vaccines, Kieny noted, but she said, “We hope that one dose will be sufficient [for the swine flu virus]. Before we know that, it’s very difficult to say how many doses will be available.” She added that most vaccine makers “still have some window of opportunity in their orders, and we want to make sure we don’t wait until that window is completely closed.” “What we’ve recommended for the timing at present was for all manufacturers to put everything in place to be able to start manufacturing vaccine,” she said. In response to questions today, she said some manufacturers might be able to make seasonal and swine flu vaccines at the same time, using different production facilities. “You can’t make two vaccines in the same plant at the same time,” but some companies have more than one facility, she commented.
Great announcements come to us from airports in Croatia, which this year never have more scheduled flights.In 2018, between March 25 and October 27, it was introduced more than 70 new regular lines, while the growth of the total number of rotations is 15% compared to 2017. This growth represents an increase in the number of rotations from 29.843 rotations in 2017 to more than 34.400 rotations in 2018. And that this season will be a record again, or at least on the right track, is shown by the data as they are in February 2018 Croatian airports recorded 229 thousand passengers or 13,9% more than in the same month last year, according to data from the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS).Analyzing the summer flight schedule by destination, according to the absolute number of announced new rotations, Split leads with an increase of 27,7%, in second place is Dubrovnik with an increase of 19,6%, while in third place is Zagreb with a growth of 6%. This year, in addition to numerous multi-year flights from European cities, Split Airport will be connected by new Volote flights with Nice, Palermo and Bergamo, while Thomas Cook flights will connect it with London, Bristol and Glasgow, Dausseldorf and Hanover. , so this year Split will have almost 90 direct lines with Europe.A year after the new extended runway of Brac Airport was put into operation, this year it is planned that twice as many passengers will land on it as last year. Thus, with 47 airline guests as expected on the basis of already signed contracts and flight announcements, Brac would have the best year in the history of the airport. “86-seater Dash planes will fly from Zagreb, and the Adria Airways route from Ljubljana to Brač will be introduced for the first time in May. flights via Ljubljana to Brac directly from Paris, Brussels and Amsterdam ” said is Tonči Peović, director of Brač Airport.From this summer, it will be possible to fly to Brac for the first time from Bern, Switzerland, by Skyworks, which will fly a 60-seat plane on Saturdays from June, just as Luxembourg will be connected to Brac every week. TUI is strengthening all its lines to Brač, so it flies from Brussels, Rotterdam and Deauville, and in the peak season, two-week lines to Brač from Italy are expected.Related news:MORE THAN 70 NEW REGULAR AIRLINES INTRODUCED FROM MARCH TO END OF OCTOBERPASSENGER GROWTH IN AIRPORTS OF 14% ACHIEVED IN FEBRUARYIS THE RIJEKA-KÖLN AIRLINE THREATENED THROUGH POOR FULLNESS?</p>
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